8 Things You Should Know About Before Planning 2018

Here is a list of books, ideas and concepts that I have found profoundly interesting and important this year. I’m so grateful that I have discovered them or been introduced to them by others. I want you to have the benefit of knowing they exist, whether for now or in the future.My experience has been that certain teachers and teachings come along right at the time they are most needed. So, check these out and store them in your memory bank for a time when it might be exactly what you need.1. Ho’Oponopono – This ancient Hawaiian practice has been of interest to me for years. I’ve used it in the past and recently had the honor of introducing Dame Mabel Katz (peace prize recipient and author of “The Easiest Way to Live”) at a speaking event.She is an expert on the subject, speaking globally on this powerful method of “cleaning errors” and taking 100% responsibility for addressing the disharmony in your life. The idea is that “cleaning” our own thoughts, that have been passed down through generations, will affect our happiness and the collective thinking in the world.This very simple process requires that you only repeat certain statements that are universally understood and respected (such as: “thank you, I love you, I’m sorry and I forgive you”) The result of practicing ho’oponopono is to improve our own sense of peace and that of others, with no action on their part at all.2. What a Focus on Giving Can Do – I was given the book The Go-Giver by Bob Burg and John David Mann by my mentor in August. I finally read it on a plane last week. I read it in two hours and I’m one of the world’s slowest readers, so it takes no time to read. This is a fun and truly unique business read.”The Go-Giver tells the story of an ambitious young man named Joe who yearns for success. Joe is a true go-getter, though sometimes he feels as if the harder and faster he works, the further away his goals seem to be. And so one day, desperate to land a key sale at the end of a bad quarter, he seeks advice from the enigmatic Pindar, a legendary consultant referred to by his many devotees simply as the Chairman.”


“Pindar’s friends share with Joe the Five Laws of Stratospheric Success and teach him how to open himself up to the power of giving.”The ideas in this book are taught in companies around the world and will change the way you think and operate.3. Your Hidden Money Archetypes – Are you aware that you have unconscious money beliefs that are driving your decision making? This is one of the most important discoveries I have made in recent years. I wish I’d known about it sooner. These beliefs and related behavior patterns can be explained through archetypes (models of thinking and behavior).Once you understand and gain awareness of your “money personality” as explained through your archetypes, you will be empowered with information that allows you to make better and more conscious choices in all your interactions with money. This is how you begin to create a better relationship with money. This is my specialty, and I would love to discuss it with you further if you have concerns in this area.4. How to Really Think Big – Do you feel that you already think big? My guess is that you are still capping your sense of possibility in some areas. The book The Big Leap – Conquer Your Hidden Fear and Take Life to the Next Level by Gay Hendricks PhD, clarifies the discussion of how we get in our own way of living a happier and more abundant life.He explains beautifully the psychology behind our general discomfort with the idea that we can be happy and prosperous for extended periods, or even indefinitely. He masterfully shows us how we sabotage ourselves so we can stay in the comfort zone of drama and difficulties, and why we would do such a thing. From there, he helps us understand what is possible. This is truly necessary reading if you want to learn how to think bigger for yourself and those you love.5. The Power of Intentions – I’m constantly talking about this, I know. It’s the catalyst of all catalysts though. It’s worth repeating. Setting intention is like flipping the switch in your brain, allowing you to focus on something specific (not easy when the brain is bombarded with messaging every moment) and alert the universe that the light’s on. This is the signal, the message, the prayer that will be heard by whatever the “source” is for you. Once the intention is set, all wheels start turning, moving you toward the desired outcome.Use this for the big goals and before a simple meeting. Use it in every area of life. Setting an intention reinforces a decision. Decisions are critical. From the decision point, you can create the mindset and actions to move forward on the intention. You will be shocked what transpires.6. PLAN to Maintain Your Connections – Do you go out in the world and meet people? Are those connections valuable to you? What do you do to keep the connection going? As much as we network and engage clients and customers, what follows those interactions is key, and sometimes left to chance.We tend to feel that the initial meeting or work together is the significant point. While important, it’s the long term that matters more. Relationships take effort to cultivate and grow. If you have a process and a plan to follow up and continually connect with people, you will develop a powerful network that you enjoy, and with whom there is a long term relationship.7. A Technique For Deciding Between Two Choices – When difficult decisions present themselves, you can do a pros and cons list, but frankly, I’ve never found answers doing that.


The “Cartesian Coordinates” process (from Career Coaching: An Insider’s Guide by Marcia Bench) proposes asking 4 questions to make sure every angle is addressed in an important decision between two choices. This prevents unanticipated consequences from occurring once a decision is made. For example, perhaps you are trying to decide whether to leave your corporate position and move into entrepreneurship. It’s a difficult decision. To fully analyze it, ask these questions:

What would happen if you did? (i.e. what would happen if you left your job)?

What wouldn’t happen if you did? (i.e. what would you miss out on if you left now)?

What would happen if you didn’t? (i.e. what would the benefits by of staying)?

What wouldn’t happen if you didn’t? (i.e. what opportunities would you miss out on by staying)?
8. Plan So Your Days Have Direction – You might have a great vision and mission statement for the year ahead. You might be able to picture the outcomes and results at the end of the year. You might visualize a bank account balance next December with a big grin.However, without specificity on how you will achieve the vision or the revenue, it’s a hope and not a strategy. Make sure there are particular targets to reach each month and that those targets can result in the revenue generation necessary. An ideal plan gives you a roadmap and the information you need to direct each day. If you wake up and don’t know what to work on in your business or career search, your plan could be more detailed.Plan to produce, not just for fun.Well, those are some ideas to tuck away and use now, or at some point when you realize you need them. Resources give me a sense of comfort and these are favorites.

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Life Improvement: When Is It Time Not To Plan?

Many of us have all heard the age-old saying that failing to plan is planning to fail. And many of us know the value and power that is found in setting goals, especially written ones. Every business guru, diet guru, sports guru… any guru… take your pick from the plenty there are… all of them stress one thing: have goals, will succeed. So we know this works. At the same time, we all hear of the importance and immense power of letting go, detachment. So we also know that this works. But it all sounds contradictory at first, doesn’t it? Well, it isn’t. The question then is, when is it time to plan, and when is it time to let go (not plan)? Put in another way, when does planning help you, and when does it harm you? When do things “go bad” not in spite of your plans, but because of them? That is the question, the answer to which will allow you to drop off the stress and worry baggage, stop unwittingly messing yourself up with plans made at the wrong place and time, and generally empower and free you a great deal.

Well, to begin with, it is a good time to define a plan so that we know what we are talking about. A plan is a vision; a template which when followed guarantees a certain outcome. It is a collection of cause-and-effect clusters that all work together to produce one final desired outcome. The essence inspires a vision that defines the becoming of a form, through process, that will hold the expression and experience of the essence that inspired it. That is a plan. Obviously, a plan with missing or incorrect inputs will not lead to the correct outcome,because it is not based on truth, on the Universe as it were, on the Laws It Works By. So you can imagine that an incomplete plan will work, but it won’t – it can only hope to approximate. Incomplete plans don’t work fully, no matter how one deludes themselves prior to the frustration of seeing the plan dashed against the rocks. Moving on, a plan made at the level of your ego is a personal plan. You make it because you have certain hopes and fears and you wish to avoid what you fear and make what you hope for happen. Without fear, you would rarely plan personally. Most plans are defensive; defensive against some imagined attack. A feature of a personal plan is that they have a future imagined “good end” to aim for and a “bad end” to avoid. Therefore, a personal plan is based on judgment (against yourself and others) and abstract assumed scenarios as part of its inputs. Its driving force is partially based on fear, as all things from the ego level are.

Here is a key point: personal plans are made from a vantage point that has no vision of all factors involved in all dimensions of space and time, and that is why the ego assumes things in an attempt to fill in the places it has no idea about. At this level of consciousness, you can only see what is right Here Now, and for most humans that is a tiny slice of eternity. Of all the millions of cause-and-effect components required to cooperate all across the universe for your desire to be fulfilled, your egoic self is only aware of a tiny percentage of them. That is why its plans are never complete. But then there is a part of You that is nonphysical and aware of all, all, the components and how they would exactly fit into the space-time continuum to guarantee that your desire is fulfilled. That part of You is Everywhere, that is why It Knows.

Now, I would like you to stop for a moment and remember the last time you had a flash of insight, an ah-ha that made you smile with delight at how smart you are. We have all had those moments where, literally out of the blue, we get it! You could be taking a piss while daydreaming about the ocean, when this brilliant solution for your business appears in a flash in your mind, and you get so excited! It’s a funny thing how they happen. Have you ever wondered why they come to you as finished plans? Seriously, remember the last time you had one. You did not construct it, put it together, or formulate it. You know, you did not put it together, block by block, until it became the genius idea that it was. You just found it all done for you, there, flashing in your mind. And you ran out and told your friends what you just thought of, never once stopping to consider just how you thought of it. Really, who put it together? Think about that. You found it complete, perfect for your needs. Who put it together with such wakeful intelligence that is aware of all that is involved so much so as to produce such a suitable idea? What about musicians? Many chart-topping artists report that they simply find the music in them; they hear it then write it. They don’t put it together; they more like report it. The same goes for many inventors, many artists, and so on.

By the time you get one of those flashes of insights, by the time it enters your mind, it is already a copy. The original is out there somewhere, where it was put together by One who has full vision and was capable of bringing to you what you had not managed to package together yourself. But remember, there is only One Mind, separation is a mental illusion, just like time is a mental illusion (time is thought “stretched” out into “space” to demonstrate and experience it; you recognize sections of eternity “at a time” to experience process, space demonstrated). You “heard” the thought, the inspiration, because you were listening, at that point empty in relation to the matter. If you remain empty, you could continue, day by day, to listen to the rest of the plan, which includes how to execute the vision, what inputs to use, when to make what move, and so on. The place where the original plan came from is your own Higher Mind, that part of your individuation that is still in perfect recognition of its unity with All That Is, the part of you that sees all and knows all, the part of you that is not in the experience called human, the divine essence. Now here is the greatest news: no divine plans are incomplete. None! So none can possibly fail when executed as planned. The Planner Sees All, Directs All. The only thing that can interfere (which means it introduces inefficiency to your personal experience) with a divine plan is a personal plan. This is not because a personal plan is more powerful; it is because the right to free will is upheld with the highest respect. You have heard many times that you have many aspects of you, some of which you are conscious of and others of which you are not. When they are not aligned, you experience conflict and confusion. So now we know the difference between a personal and a divine plan. A divine plan is not some plan made by some foreign god to impose on you; it is Your Own answer to your questions, from a level that sees all (Spirit) to one whose experience is one slice of the whole at a time (human). But it is all you. That is why those flashes of genius that you get are so complete, yet they are specific to the very problem or desire you had.

Now let us go back to this goal-making business. Personal plans have a function, but only when used to free the individual. It is the only time they can help you. And this is why. Imagine a person who feels like a victim (in anything, any area of life). They have given up hope. They feel powerless, incapable of making anything happen. Now, if something happens that triggers their courage or anger enough to make them decide to do what it takes to make things work for them, they begin to become self-reliant. They drop the victim mentality. They make a plan; a way in which they feel will get them out of their desperation. Now, every time a human has a desire, the non-physical part of that human starts inspiring this human with ideas from a divine plan, ideas which are guaranteed to work. However, if you have so much personal thoughts and emotions distracting you, you cannot hear these inspirations. You must still yourself. Like a calm pond, one which will instantly be aware of any rock thrown in. If you are like the Niagara Falls inside, you will not notice the rocks being thrown in.

Anyway, back to our example. This person, far from calm, will only hear parts of the plan being given them. They will, out of fear and a belief that they can fail, that there is some danger somewhere, they make a personal plan. They use inputs from inspiration, whatever they can hear and are not afraid to follow, and they also make up scenarios, imaginings based on their fears, and use these in the planning process. At the end of it all, what they invariably find is that the plan works in certain portions. They are elated! Even if not everything worked as planned, at least something worked! And this way, they rise out of desperation and can now start to direct their life. The point here is that from the place they were, the helplessness they believed to be in, any plan was a good thing. Any plan! And goals are great, because they give a point of reference, something to aim for. As you can see, even the worst personal plan, one with 10% success, is still a great thing for one who though they had zero power. It is something to celebrate and honor.

But then there comes a point where self-confidence and self- reliance is believed in enough to no longer be doubted. At this point, making personal plans becomes a great hindrance. Once you have proof that your life can be deliberately lived instead of under the idea that you are a victim of forces beyond your control, it is time to start using complete plans. That means that the ego’s personal plans are no longer useful. They were a crutch to remind you how to walk, with their goals and all, but now that you can walk on your own, you need a new tool to show you how to run and fly. That is a complete plan, a divine plan made by the higher aspect of Who You Are. You are much larger than you imagine yourself to be. Let us examine how this works.

Under the rule of personal plans, a person would ‘hear’ the insight, the flash of genius, stop everything they are doing, and excitedly run to the office to start planning how to make this plan work! They assume it is ‘my idea’ and ‘I must make it work against threat of failure’. They make plans which rely largely on assumptions (an assumption is anything that is not What Is) because they cannot see the Whole Picture. So by mere fact, their personal plans will have elements in them that interfere with the smooth progress of the original insight, the divine plan. This is where you start to fail because of your plans, not in spite of them. To begin with, you do not know what the vision you saw in your mind is for, its complete use to the entire universe. The universe is not personal; it works as a Whole. But the Original Source of the idea does. You also do not know what the millions of cause-and-event components required are; you can only guess a few of them. And you do not know at what points in the space-time continuum they require to be inserted for everything to work perfectly; but the Maker of the Original Plan does. Now watch how a personal plan messes you up at this stage. Your plan is based on dates and deadlines that you pull out of the blue. It is full of standards that you have determined indicate whether you have succeeded or failed. Let us say you miss a deadline, and something happens that is opposite of what you had hoped and expected. What happens to your ego then? Does it not rush to judgment, calling you a failure, asserting the belief that things can go wrong and that you need even more control, and increasing the level of fear and anxiety? So next time when faced with a similar situation, you put even more focus on what you fear and then it happens again! Simply because you focused on it and thus created it. It becomes a viscous cycle. And you keep reaching for more control. And you experience more stress instead of less. And fear increases. You never once to consider that there is nothing wrong with you or the universe, nothing unsafe. You never stop to consider that it is your personal plan that was grossly mistaken due to relying on a fear-created ego.

Now let us see why the most successful people all preach the power of letting go. Let us look at how one would proceed in the above example, but by listening.

A person would hear the insight, and automatically know or remind himself or herself that all divine plans are complete, all the way to the end. They know that the vision is complete in the Mind of the One, and it cannot ever fail. So it is simple. In the same way, they listened to and heard the great idea that made them all excited, they would remember that their copy is just a copy. The original is still out there, along with everything needed to make it manifest. So they would listen and wait. They would know that at the right time and place, they would receive the next piece of the puzzle. They would rest, not stressing about making plans to ‘make sure’ it happens. And it makes sense. If they did not compose the first idea, why can’t they trust that Whatever composed it will also give forth, at the right time, everything else needed to make it work?

Imagine the universe is a big circle and you are a little circle within that big circle. Now a personal planner assumes that the big circle is at war with him or her, the little circle. In their fear over this imagined state of things, they make up a phantom world in their mind, with assumptions about the future and how the rest of the universe will act and react, and they plan against this. It is so draining. One who does not make personal plans but listens to their higher aspect, on the other hand, sees the big circle as part of them, part of the whole, with only an intention to love them and make sure all is OK, because all is One. They have chosen to believe in peace and love rather than separation and scarcity. This is a choice, and it is the choice that allows them to let go. They realize that they are best served focusing on the little circle, their Here Now, which is what they have full knowing of. And they awaken within that circle that is them, here, now. They chose to put all their attention here, now, and because they do this, they are aware of their emotions and thoughts. Presence gives them the ability to control their here, now. So they choose, here now, always, to make their here now happy and well. Here, Now, they follow whatever cues come up, always deliberately choosing their thoughts and emotions, here now, and not throwing their mind into some imagined past or future. In other words, they make every here now moment golden, and because all life is a successive moments of infinite Here Now, their lives automatically work perfectly! You have seen them or heard of them. That is how they do it. Clarity, simplicity, power, peace, calm… all rewards of being present and following complete plans, letting go of personal plans once you recognize that their use as a crutch is complete. They become purely efficient, effortless.

Such people walk this earth without the baggage of plans and worries, and things work better for them! They recognize that the universe is not personal, yet it is only, only, loving and all else is our self-created illusions. Just because we do not understand something does not make that thing wrong. There are more things relating to your life than you are consciously aware of at this level of your existence. Remember that your life always creates the next moment of your experience out of your intentions. Whatever you give attention to grows. You are therefore held hostage by your own personal plans. So what is the point of your mind at this level, in relation to planning? Well, it is to execute that plans it receives, knowing with certainty that they cannot fail. It is to fashion all of your existence here into an appropriate vessel to execute these plans. The plans are already perfect. All they need is a suitable vessel to manifest through. You have to become a certain person for certain things to flow through you. It is this that you can use your lower mind for, by following cues from the higher mind. The attainment of success is not something that one comes by through chasing after success – it is something one attracts by the person they become. You form a vibration match with what you desire. It is an inner journey of transformation. You can call it education, training, skills, self-help, discipline… it is all an inner transformational journey resulting in a frequency match. It is guaranteed. That is all you have to do. The rest is done for you (admit it; you don’t know how it is done, how all those things are coordinated universally to make this amazing miracle called life work with predictability!)

You now have a progression of the use of various types of plans. In the beginning, personal plans can be used to establish self-reliance in a being that has lost hope. However, there comes a time when that crutch, the personal plan, because the very problem itself, the cause of failure instead of being the cause of success. That’s when its time to let go of the crutch. It is time to dare give trust a chance, to dare believe that the universe is loving (not dangerous, as you have been indoctrinated to assume) and see what happens! Give it a go! Find out for yourself. Let go, truly, a few times and listen to the plans as they come and see what happens! Gather your own evidence instead of holding on to personal plans because you are afraid something could “go wrong”. You don’t have to carry that huge unnecessary load. Drop it. It is very liberating! Try it a few times and see how you like it.

Choosing A Retirement Plan For Your Small Business

A qualified retirement plan can be beneficial to employers and employees alike, yet for a small business owner who is busy with daily operations, the time and effort involved in choosing a plan can seem daunting. It does not have to be.

Retirement plans come in two flavors: qualified and non-qualified. A qualified plan is desirable because it provides a vehicle for tax-deferred retirement savings for both the business’ employees and its owner, with allowable contributions in excess of those permitted for IRAs. A qualified plan also provides the employer an immediate deduction for the contributions made. Depending on the plan, it can encourage employees to maximize the business’ profits and to remain with the employer. Plans can be customized with optional features.

Non-qualified plans do not have to meet many of the requirements imposed on qualified plans, and have a wider range of features and provisions as a result. However, in most cases the employer does not get an immediate tax deduction for a non-qualified plan. Such arrangements also have to avoid “constructive receipt” by the employee in order to defer the employee’s taxes until the money is actually distributed. This usually exposes the employee to credit risk if the business fails before the deferred compensation is paid out. Non-qualified plans are sometimes useful, but most small businesses will prefer one of the qualified plan arrangements described in this article.

All of this can leave your head swimming, especially if personal finance is not your area of expertise. To simplify the exercise, think of finding a retirement plan that fits your small business like buying a new car. You should consider what retirement plan vehicle will fit your business’ size, needs and budget, as well as offering any special features you want. The more “tricked out” your retirement plan, the more costly it will be to establish and maintain.

The SEP (Simplified Employee Pension) IRA is the bare-bones model that gets you from point A to point B. It is easy to adopt, and typically custodians like Schwab or T. Rowe Price offer a basic form to start one. A SEP can be established as late as the employer’s income tax filing deadline, including extensions. After the initial set-up, the employer has no further filing requirements.

With a SEP, the employer makes contributions for all eligible employees. The common threshold for eligibility is an employee who is at least age 21 and who has been employed by the employer for three of the last five years, with compensation of at least $550 during the year. Eligibility standards can be less strict than this if the employer chooses. Contributions are an equal percentage for each employee’s income. The maximum contribution for 2013 is 25 percent of compensation, but no more than $51,000 total ($52,000 in 2014). (The same limits on contributions made to employees’ SEP-IRAs also apply to contributions if you are self-employed. However, special rules apply when figuring the maximum deductible contribution.) In a year where cash is limited, an employer does not have to make a contribution. SEP contributions are due by the employer’s tax filing deadline, including extensions.

A SEP is a great choice for a sole proprietor or a small business with a few employees, where the employer would like to have a retirement savings vehicle that allows larger, tax deductible contributions than does a traditional IRA with minimal fuss and maximum flexibility.

A SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) IRA is also easy to establish and has no ongoing filing requirements for employers. SIMPLE IRAs are only available to businesses with fewer than 100 employees and no other retirement plan in place. These plans operate on a calendar-year basis and can be established as late as October 1.

While only the employer can contribute to a SEP IRA plan, a SIMPLE IRA allows employees to contribute to their own accounts, up to $12,000 in 2013 and 2014. Also, participants age 50 and older can make additional contributions, up to $2,500. The employer can either match employee contributions up to 3 percent of compensation (not limited by an annual compensation limit) or make a 2 percent of compensation nonelective contribution for each eligible employee (limited to an annual compensation limit of $255,000). The employer’s matching contribution can go as low as 1 percent when cash is constrained; however, the employer can use this option no more than 2 years out of a 5-year period. Unlike a SEP, a SIMPLE plan requires that the employer contribute each year.

An employer must deposit employees’ salary reduction contributions within 30 days of the end of the month in which the money is withheld from employee paychecks. The matching or nonelective contributions are due by the due date of the employer’s federal income tax return, including extensions.

All employees who have earned income of at least $5,000 in any prior 2 years and are reasonably expected to earn at least $5,000 in the current year must be eligible to participate in a SIMPLE IRA.

A SIMPLE can be a good choice for a small employer who would like to benefit from the tax deduction for employer contributions while encouraging his or her employees to save for retirement. Many employees will find this sort of plan attractive because it allows for higher contributions than a traditional IRA and requires employer contributions. It entails a greater administrative burden than a SEP, although this burden is still relatively small, and offers less flexibility. If cash flow is not an issue, a SIMPLE plan might be for you.

Once an employer makes a contribution to a SEP or SIMPLE plan, the employee is 100 percent vested in that contribution. Employees can take their contributions with them, even if they quit the next day. If employee retention is a concern, a plan that allows for deferred vesting, such as a Money Purchase Plan (MPP) or Profit Sharing Plan (PSP), may be a better fit. Vesting can either be graduated over a period of years of service or take effect all at once after a certain period of years. These plans are the middle-of-the-line models that provide more features than the most basic plans.

Similar to a SEP, a PSP allows for discretionary contributions by the employer. This is a beneficial feature if the business’ cash flow is a concern. The employer contributes what he or she can and the contributions are divided among employees based on a formula set by the plan. This is commonly based on an individual employee’s compensation relative to total compensation. Employer contributions are limited to the lesser of 100 percent of the employee’s compensation or $51,000 for 2013 ($52,000 for 2014). An employer can deduct amounts that do not exceed 25 percent of aggregate compensation for participants. A plan must be established by the last day of the business’ fiscal year. Contributions are due by the business’ tax filing deadline, including extensions.

A PSP is a good choice if cash flow is variable. It can motivate workers to increase profits and the likelihood of receiving a contribution. However, many employees might not find it as beneficial as a plan with guaranteed contributions. These employees may prefer a Money Purchase Plan (MPP).

A MPP is similar to a PSP, but it requires an annual contribution of a specific percentage of employee compensation, up to 25 percent. This creates a liability for the business, and thus may not be a good choice if cash flow is uncertain. An MPP must be established by the last day of the business’ fiscal year. Contributions must be made by the due date of the employer’s tax return, including extensions.

Standard eligibility requirements for both a PSP and an MPP are employees over age 21 and who have at least one to two years of service with the employer. If two years of service are required for participation, contributions vest immediately.

MPPs and PSPs also may allow loans to participants, a feature that employees often find attractive. Loans are usually limited to either (1) the greater of $10,000 or 50 percent of the vested balance or (2) $50,000, whichever is less. Loans must be repaid, with interest, over 5 years, unless they are used to purchase the employee’s principal residence.

The vesting and loan features make MPPs and PSPs more difficult to establish and maintain than SEP or SIMPLE plans. Both types of plan require employers to file Form 5500 with the IRS annually. These plans also both require testing to ensure that benefits do not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees. Employers may also find the administration of plan loans to be burdensome. The added features of MPPs and PSPs make them more costly and complicated than the standard model SEP and SIMPLE plans.

You may choose an MPP or PSP if you would like a plan that encourages employee retention and you can handle the extra paperwork. Whether you choose an MPP or a PSP depends mainly on your cash flow.

The fully loaded model retirement plan is the traditional 401(k). These plans allow employee and employer contributions, vesting of employer contributions (employee contributions are always fully vested), and other options such as loans. These plans can be as basic or as complex as the employer wants. However, with complexity comes cost.

Annual employee contributions for a 401(k) are limited to $17,500 for 2013 and 2014. Participants age 50 and older can contribute an additional $5,500. Combined, the employer and employee contributions can be up to the lesser of either 100 percent of compensation or $51,000 for 2013 ($52,000 for 2014). Employers can deduct contributions up to 25 percent of aggregate compensation for participants and all salary reduction contributions. A 401(k) must be adopted by the end of the business’ fiscal year, and contributions are due by the business’s tax filing deadline, plus extensions.

An employer’s contribution to a traditional 401(k) plan can be flexible. Contributions can be a percentage of compensation, a match for employee contributions, both or neither. However, the plan must be tested annually to determine that it does not discriminate against rank-and-file employees in favor or owners and managers. A Safe Harbor 401(k) does not require discrimination testing but does require the employer to make either a specified matching contribution or a 3 percent contribution to all participants.

Commonly, 401(k) plans must be offered to all employees over age 21 who have worked at least 1,000 hours in the previous year.

A 401(k) is a good option for an employer who would like a plan with salary deferral, like a SIMPLE IRA, but also allows for vesting of employer contributions. An employer considering this sort of plan should be able to afford the contributions and the additional administrative work required. A 401(k) is a good option for larger businesses, where the maintenance of such a plan is less burdensome.

The plans I have described in this article are all defined contribution plans. This mean that the plan determines the contributions made, not the ultimate benefits received. Once the contribution is made, the employee invests it however he or she sees fit. At retirement, the amount the employee can withdraw is dictated by the performance of those investments. Poor investments lead to smaller retirement savings.

Defined benefit plans, in contrast, are the Rolls Royces of the retirement plan world. These plans include traditional pension plans, which pay out a set amount to an employee in retirement. The employer, not the employee, takes on the investment risk and will have to make up most shortfalls if the money originally set aside does not cover the ultimate expense.

While in theory an employee could do better with a defined contribution plan, depending on investment results, the certainty of a set payout in retirement makes defined benefit plans highly attractive to participants. However, such plans are costly and administratively complex. On top of annual filings, the plan needs to be tested by an actuary. The required future payments become a liability of the company. The burdens of these plans have made them unattractive for many businesses, and they have become much less common in recent years. In most cases, especially for small businesses with employees, it is not economical to adopt a defined benefit plan.

Adopting a qualified plan for your small business need not be a hassle, even if you want to adopt one for the 2013 tax year. However, be prepared for the administrative complexity, and cost, to grow in step with the plan’s features. In general, though, the benefits of tax-deferred savings and contribution deductions for employers make setting up and maintaining one of these vehicles worth the price tag.